The problem is those sketchy sellers that would abuse the heck out of a system like the one described in the article (in the same way they abuse the existing review system). Just buy your competitor's product and report it doesn't work anymore. Rinse and repeat.
Amazon has some built-in protections against this type of behavior. Competitors used to do this same kind of brigading with reviews.
I like the idea, but I would hate the never ending feedback on everything I buy. It would be interesting to have a review field with that. I am sure they have already have data points on how often users repurchase similar items to auto populate that duration field.
I am guessing Apple earbuds would have like durability of 6 month how many times I lose them.
My personal opinion the larger problem is the amount of knock-off crap they allow on the site and how easy it is to create fake reviews. This creates fake confidence that this product is good when it isn't.
Send this as your cover letter
My thoughts: If you're buying a nine-dollar pair of headphones and are expecting a three-year lifespan, you're barking up the wrong consumer tree.
Arguing that this will improve the planet's sustainability and using what is effectively a disposable consumer item as an example is a bit off, in my eyes. If you were making the argument and using a refrigerator as an example, sure. But I don't know anyone who would buy the cheapest earbuds on amazon and expect long lifespans from it.
Now a further thought: This is an idea that will never be adopted for products in the low-end of the price brackets. The point I made above as the first reason for that, and as a further point this would be easy for retailers and consumers to abuse, which would detract from legitimate sellers.
Honestly though, from a high-level overview, you're trying to demand sustainability from new-age hyperconsumerism. Amazon in itself - a mass retailer - is against the concept of sustainability in general. Their modus operandi is to sell as much shit as possible. This does not go hand-in-hand with wanting to buy items as infrequently as possible.
They could sell the crap out of that data on their ad exchange. Surprised they aren't doing this already.