Some insights from my time at different orgs. Would love feedback and to see if this resonates with the community here.
You made some great points, but I feel like you should really emphasize the design as a stakeholder. For instance, my company doesn't have a CDO. I don't think a C-suite position even is necessary for us. Since we are a massive corporation that offers lots of different products from hardware, software, services, aircraft, spacecraft, etc. But, every project (software or enterprise system) that I've been on, design is a key stakeholder. It's built into our contracts and it's joint feedback from everyone on where to move forward. We have systems engineers, mission engineers, and designers and we all handle similar parts of shaping the project's development. We guide the development on what needs to happen and how it could happen. We have feedback opportunities and make decisions that shape the development of our work.
I guess, I'd never call my company design-driven, but design is a key stakeholder, and our customers' value quality user experience & design practices.
The question should be, isn't if a company is design-driven, (I mean, they're all profit-driven). But, does the company truly understand and value design? Design as a stakeholder and asking a designer are some of the best practices in learning if your work is valued.